I've been struggling with this issue for a few days now. Windows builds for my game work fine, but when I build it to Android, it loads, shows the "made with Unity" screen, then fades to black. Now, I know the next scene (an animated logo) is running because it is playing the audio in real time. However, nothing in the scene is visible. Then, the UI for the in-game loading screen appears. Normally, the game would then load, and it does, but again, the camera thinks there are no sprites in the scene. I can still play the game, and the audio sounds just normal, but I can't see. Then, when I die, the game-over UI appears, and I can use it as normal. The shop-menu works absolutely fine, but the game itself does not. It's as if Unity decided that all SpriteRenderers in the game just didn't exist, and that the camera background color was now black. There are no scripts or animations causing this directly, as it does work in editor and on a PC build. I also made sure that none of the textures were too large for Android (to the point where not one of them is larger than 256x256, which looks terrible but proves a point).
Now, before anyone asks, yes, I have seen the other question on this topic, and no, sadly, it did not help. My camera is set to "solid color", not "don't clear." I tried "skybox" too, just to be safe. I have also tried disabling post-processing, hoping that Android was just unable to handle it. It did nothing. I have even tried entirely disabling all of the sprites in the scene, but even then, the background is still black, indicating that the camera is still not playing nice.